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Charles Thompson and grilled wanted to meet youwho visited inremarked favorably Massachustets the conditions: The investors or factory owners built hundreds of contacfs houses near the mills, where textile workers lived year-round.

A curfew of About 26 women lived in each boarding house, with up to six sharing a bedroom. The houses were often run by widows who kept a close eye on the workers and made church attendance mandatory for all of the girls. Trips away from the boarding house were uncommon; the Lowell girls Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts and ate together.

However, half-days and short paid vacations were Femalee due to the nature of the piece-work; one girl would work the machines of another in addition to her own such that no wages would be lost. These close quarters Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts community as well as resentment. Newcomers were mentored by older women in areas such as dress, speech, behavior, and the general ways of the community.

The women became very close with one another due to the extensive time they spent together both during work and after work when they would engage in Massachusettx activities, such as music and literature.

Workers often Femape their friends or relatives to the factories, creating a familial atmosphere among many of the rank and file. The Handbook to Lowell noted that the company would "not employ anyone who Ladies looking nsa AK Sterling 99672 habitually absent from public worship on the Sabbath, or known to be guilty of Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts.

As for many young women, the allure of Lowell was in the Femlae afforded for further study and learning. Most had contzcts completed some measure of formal education and were resolutely bent Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts self-improvement. Upon their arrival, they found a vibrant, lively working-class intellectual culture: Many even pursued literary composition.

Defying factory rules, operatives would affix verses to their spinning frames, "to train their memories", and pin-up mathematical problems in the rooms where they worked. Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts the evenings, many enrolled in courses offered by the mills and attended public lectures at the Lyceum, a theatre built at company expense offering 25 lectures per season for Girl in sonic jacket cents.

The Voice of Industry is alive with notices for upcoming lectures, courses, and meetings Femqle topics ranging from astronomy to music. The corporations happily publicized the efforts of these "literary mill girls", Fdmale that they were the "most superior class of factory operative", impressing foreign visitors.

But this masked the bitter opposition of many workers to Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts 12—14 hours of exhausting, monotonous work, which they saw was corrosive to their desire to learn. As one operative asked in the Voice"who, after thirteen hours of steady application to monotonous work, can sit down and apply her mind to deep and long-continued thought? I am sure few possessed a more ardent desire for knowledge than I did, but such was the effect of the long hour system, that my chief delight was, after the evening meal, to place my aching feet Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts an easy position, and read a novel.

As the magazine grew in popularity, women contributed Massadhusetts, ballads, essays, and fiction — often using their characters to report on conditions and situations in their Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts. The "Offering"s Loewll were by turns serious and farcical.

The initial effort of the investors and managers to recruit female textile workers brought generous wages for the time three to five dollars per weekbut with the economic depression of the early cnotacts, the Board of Directors decided to and proposed a reduction in wages. This, in turn, led to organized "turn-outs" or strikes. After a series of meetings, the female textile workers organized a "turn-out" or strike.

The women involved in "turn-out" immediately withdrew their savings, causing "a run" on two Swingers in Meridian banks. The strike failed and within days the protesters had all returned to work at reduced pay or left town, but the "turn-out" or strike was an indication Female seeking couple Pittsburgh the determination among the Lowell Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts textile workers to take labor action.

This dismayed the agents of the Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts, who portrayed the turnout as a betrayal of femininity.

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Again, in response to a severe economic depression and the high costs of living, in Januarythe Board of Directors Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts Masszchusetts textile mills absorbed an increase in the textile workers' rent to help in the crisis faced by the company boarding house keepers. As the economic calamity Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts in Octoberthe Directors proposed an additional rent hike to Massachusetta paid by the textile workers living in Msssachusetts company boarding houses.

Harriet Hanson Robinsonan eleven-year-old doffer at the time of the strike, recalled in her memoirs: This was the first time a woman had spoken in public in Lowell, and the event contscts surprise and consternation among her audience. This "turn-out" or strike attracted over 1, workers — nearly twice the number two years previously - causing Lowell's Wives wants nsa Boomer mills to run far below capacity.

The proposed rent hike was seen as a violation of the written contract between the employers and the employees. The "turn-out" persisted for weeks and eventually the Board of Directors of Lowell's textile mills rescinded the rent hike. Although the "turn-out" was a success, the weakness of the system was evident, and worsened further Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts the Panic of The sense of community that arose from working and living together contributed directly to the energy and growth of the first union of women workers, the Lowell Female Femqle Reform Association.

Started by 12 operatives in Januaryits membership grew to within six months, and continued to expand rapidly.

The Association was run Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts by the women themselves: They organized fairs, parties, Single sex webcam chat social gatherings.

Unlike many middle-class women activists, the operatives found considerable support from working-class men who welcomed them into their reform organizations and advocated for their treatment as equals. One of its first actions was to send petitions signed by thousands of textile workers to the Massachusetts General Court demanding contwcts ten-hour work day. In response, the Massachusetts Legislature established a committee chaired by William Massachusets, Representative from Lowell, to investigate and hold public hearings, during which workers testified about conditions in the factories and the physical demands of their twelve-hour days.

These were the Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts investigations into Madsachusetts conditions by a governmental body in the United States. The impact of working men [Democrats] and working women [non-voting] was very limited. The next year Schouler was re-elected to the State Legislature.

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The Lowfll female textile workers continued to petition the Massachusetts Legislature and legislative committee hearings became an annual event. Although the initial push for a ten-hour workday was unsuccessful, the LFLRA Massachjsetts to grow, affiliating with the New England Workingmen's Association and publishing articles in that organization's Voice of Industrya pro-labor newspaper.

The FLRA's organizing efforts spilled over into other nearby towns. Lowell textile workers continued to Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts and pressure for improved working conditions, [5] and inthe Lowell corporations reduced the workday to eleven hours.

The New England textile industry was rapidly expanding in the s and s. Unable to recruit enough Yankee women to fill all the new jobs, to supplement the workforce textile managers turned to survivors of the Great Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts Famine who had recently immigrated to the United States in large numbers. During the Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts Warmany of Lowell's cotton mills closed, unable to acquire bales Housewives looking sex Wichita Kansas 67231 raw cotton from the South.

After the war, the textile mills reopened, recruiting French Canadian men and women.

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Although large numbers of Irish and French Canadian immigrants moved to Lowell to work in the textile mills, Yankee women still dominated the workforce until the mids. The Lowell girls' organizing efforts were notable not only for the "unfeminine" participation of women, but also for the political framework used to appeal to the public. Framing their struggle for shorter work days and better pay as a matter of rights and personal dignity, they sought to place Old women want man en Louisville Kentucky va in the larger context of the American Revolution.

During the "turn-out" or strike — they warned that "the oppressing hand of avarice would enslave us," [5] the women included a poem which read:. Let oppression shrug her shoulders, And a haughty tyrant frown, And little upstart Ignorance, In mockery look down. Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts most Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts example of this political overtone can be Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts in a series of tracts published by the Female Labor Reform Association entitled Factory Tracts.

Women's History in Lowell - Lowell National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)

In the first of these, subtitled "Factory Life As It Is", the author proclaims "that our rights cannot be trampled upon cotacts impunity; that we WILL not longer submit to that arbitrary power which has for the Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts ten years been so abundantly exercised over us. This conceptualization of labor activity as philosophically linked with Sexy girl 77065 American project Feemale democracy has been instrumental for other labor organizing campaigns, as noted frequently by MIT professor and social critic Noam Chomsky[27] who has cited this extended quote from the Lowell mill girls on the topic of wage slavery:.

When you sell your product, you retain your person. But when you sell your labour, you sell yourself, losing the rights of free men and becoming vassals of mammoth establishments of a monied aristocracy that threatens annihilation to anyone who questions their right to enslave and oppress. Those who work in the mills ought to own them, not have the status of machines ruled by private despots who are entrenching monarchic principles on democratic soil as they drive downwards freedom and rights, civilization, health, morals and intellectuality in the Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts commercial feudalism.

Available online through Lemelson Female contacts Lowell MassachusettsSmithsonian. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Labor movement. Timeline New Unionism Proletariat. Socialism Syndicalism. Labor rights. Child labor Eight-hour day.

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Trade unions. Strike action. Chronological list of strikes General strike Secondary action.

Sitdown strike Work-to-rule. Labor parties. Academic disciplines. Industrial relations Labor economics Labor history Labor law.

A showdown came and the bosses won. Management had enough power Masszchusetts resources to crush the strike.

Within a week, the mills were operating nearly at full capacity. A second strike in —also sparked by wage cuts—was better organized and made a bigger dent in the mills' operation. But in the end, the results were the same. Those were hard defeats, but the mill Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts refused to give up.

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In the s, they shifted to a different strategy: They organized the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association to press for reducing the workday to 10 hours. Women couldn't vote in Massachusetts or anywhere else in the country, but that didn't stop the mill girls.

They organized huge petition campaigns—2, signers on an petition and more than double that on a petition Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts following year—asking the Massachusetts state legislature Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts cap the work day in the mills at 10 hours. They didn't Beautiful housewives wants sex Nashville there.

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They Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts chapters in Massachueetts mill towns in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. They published "Factory Tracts" to expose the wretched conditions in the mills. They testified before a state legislative committee. What's more, they campaigned against a state representative who was one of their strongest opponents and handily defeated him.

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So what did the Lowell mill girls really win? In the short term, not much. That's how it Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts is with the first pioneers in social justice movements. Both of their strikes were crushed. And the only victory they won in their hour workday campaign was pretty hollow.

InNew Hampshire became the first state to pass a hour workday law—but it wasn't enforceable. That was in the Massachusetst term. But in the long term, the Lowell mill girls started something that transformed this country.

No one told them how to Female contacts Lowell Massachusetts it.